The Chadar frozen river trek is an extremely glamorous trek. It is easy to see why. Travel magazines worldwide show incredible pictures of Buddhist monks walking bare feet on the frozen river. The Discovery and the National Geographic channels have both made films on the Chadar trek. Anyone who returns from the Chadar trek adds to the aura around it by talking about the conditions in a revering way.
It is a 6 day trek in inhospitable conditions. It is a trek over a frozen river in Ladakh. Average mean temperature during the day is minus 10. In the night, temperatures fall to minus 20 and 25. Ice forms, breaks and changes colour on the river every few hours. At places the Chadar (or ice) does not form over the river. Trekkers then have to forge a new trail climbing over snow covered embankments to descend to a spot on the river where the ice is more stable.
The truth is the extreme conditions are not hard to beat. With multiple layers and sensible trekking, the Chadar trek is not a very difficult trek. But what sets it apart is its unique experience. Everything about it is unique: the scenery, temperature, atmosphere, the frozen river, sledges, unusual camp sites, caves and the ever changing Chadar. So unique that it has to be experienced. In our Indiahikes list of treks, the Chadar, by far, is the most unique trek.
Complete day wise trek details
Day 1:Report at Leh.Stay over night.
The only way to get to Leh in the winter months is by flight. All flights land in Leh in the morning before noon. As your aircraft enters the Ladakh region, look below to see the undulating mountain ranges enveloped in a white blanket of snow. The temperature in Leh is always in the negative. Keep a jacket, woolen cap and gloves handy in the flight to face the blast of cold air the moment you land from the plane.
Leh is totally covered by a blanket of snow. Its white all around. Sometimes the roads have a coating of a think sheet of ice. Watch out when you walk on them and be wary of slips and falls.
The city of Leh only partly open during the winter months. Only the shops catering to the local needs are open. Buy all your gears from your city and don't keep any major shopping to do at Leh.
Leh at 11,800ft is higher than your entire trek. It is colder too. Daytime the temperature hovers at around -10 degrees and after sundown drops to -16 or more. Get used to the cold at Leh during the day in the sun but get into your rooms once the sun goes down.
Day 2: Drive to Chilling. 3 hours. Trek from the road head to Tilat Sumdo.2 kms 1 hour.
Chilling, the start of your walk on the frozen Zanskar river is 64 kms away from Leh. Drive on the Leh Srinagar highway till Nimu where the Indus and meets the Zansakar. At Nimu take the road heading left and drive along the Zanskar. The road goes up along the Zanksar. Spot the frozen sheets of ice or Chadar forming on the river already.
An hour and half more along the Zanskar brings you to Chilling. A few army sheds and a couple of shut buildings dot the almost shut hamlet of Chilling. The road goes a few kms beyond Chilling. Drive ahead until you can see the end of the road. This is where you leave the road and hit the Chadar.
Take your first few steps on Chadar carefully getting a feel of the surface you are stepping on. The Chadar surface can be of various kinds - a coating of fresh powder snow, hard and shiny ice, a freshly formed chadar (sheet of ice), chadar thats weak and breaking or another new texture. It is easy to walk on a fresh coating of snow. The snow gives you good grip and you can walk normally. An old hard and shiny surface of ice is what is tricky ininitially. Do a penguine kind of walk on such a surface without lifting your feet too much off the ground.
The Tilat Sumdo campsite comes within an hour of your trek. Sumdo means confluence. A local tributary joins the Zanskar from your left. An elevated level field makes a good camping spot. On the opposite side are a few caves were those not carrying tents can camp. The locals on their journey through the Chadar tend to stay in caves. Tilat Sumdo will be your first experience of camping out in the freezing temperatures. A campfire will make it better but it comes at the cost of the last traces of vegetation (dried) left on the banks of the Chadar.
Day 3: Trek from Tilat Sumdo to Shingra Koma.9.5 kms, 6 hours Wake up with the sun at about 7 am and prepare to leave the campsite by 9 am. Though the sun is up, Tilat Sumdo like most parts of the Chadar gets direct sunlight only during mid day. Another reason why the Chadar forms and remains.
The morning walk on the Chadar may feel like a walk inside a deep freezer. Your face should be the only exposed skin but its enough to give the deep freeze feeling. As you walk on the Chadar, listen to the sounds it makes. Depending on the thickness of the Chadar, the sounds change. You will soon start recognizing where the Chadar is thick and where it is thin and dangerous.
There can be certain sections where the Chadar has formed only on the real corners of the river and the corner is under a low over hang. Do not fear to get down to your fours or even lie down on your tummy and crawl through those sections.
Shingra Koma is almost 10kms away from Tilat Sumdo. The 10 kms can be covered in about 6 to 7 hours. Mid way through the trek around noon, find a sunny section where your cook can dish out a quick hot meal of Maggie and tea. Packed lunches are ruled out on the Chadar trek because the food will become way too cold by noon to be eaten. Hot quick meals on the way is the only way out.
While on the Chadar, do not be surprised to spot pug marks. The big cats roam around pretty freely though they are elusive to the human eyes.
Shingra Koma is a big camping ground on your right as you walk up stream. Its right below a huge stone wall which is straight out of a hollywood movie. The Zanskar river takes a beautiful turn right in front of the camp site and sharp peaks rise on the other side of the river.
Shingra Koma gets its name due to the abundance of a plant called as Shingra.
Day 4: Trek from Shingra Koma to Tibb. 15 kms, 7 - 8 hours
The trek from Shingra Koma to Tibb is a long one. It is also one of the most beautiful days of the trek. Watch the small waterfalls on the left standing still in the form of icefalls.
A couple of hours into the days walk brings you to a massive waterfall on the left. Prayer flags flutter on the trees in front of the waterfall. You know that the place is revered by the Ladakhis. Surprisingly the waterfall is not frozen. Notice the greenish moss growing on the rocks under the water.
Legend goes that, one year Nerak ran dry and a holy man went to Kailash to pray for water. He came back with a pot full of water and 2 fishes. The condition was that he does not place the pot anywhere. On the journey back, it so happened that he placed the pot and this spot and two fishes jumped off creating this massive waterfall. The rocks behind seem to have two nostrils. One which is full of water and the other dry. According to legend, this waterfalls has its source at Kailash in Tibet.
The lunch point for the day is exactly mid way and under an overhang of rocks. Post lunch, the Zanskar river passes through narrow gorges where the width of the river can be covered by 4 people holding hands. The narrow gorge hardly gets any sunlight and so the river is non existent. Generally, a thick chadar forms end to end here.
Two more hours of walk through the various hues and forms of Chadar brings you to a large camping area on your right - Tibb. To the left again are caves were 8 to 9 people can be comfortably accomodated. The Tibb campsite also has more dry vegetation around.
Day 5: Trek from Tibb to Nerak. 12 kms, 7 hours The trek from Tibb to Nerak is 12 kms long. This is the day when you encounter the much awaited frozen waterfall. The day is beautiful too going through the cliffs and gorges and valleys of Chadar. 5 hours into the trek and after your lunch break is when you see the first sights of Nerak. Prayer flags around Juniper shrubs by the Chadar signal that you are now close to Nerak and before that the waterfall.
A kilometer ahead around a bend under the shade of the gorge lies the famous Nerak waterfall. The Nerak pul or bridge lies just ahead of the waterfall. The bridge is an old wooden bridge but can still take wait of 4-5 people at once. Its a nice experience walking on the rickety bridge and catching the sight of the waterfall from the top.
The trail goes along the Chadar and 20 minutes of walk brings you to Nerak where a small trail takes you up to the Nerak campsite.
Nerak is a village located about 2,000ft higher than the river bed. The Chadar trekkers camp not at the village but at the camping ground 200 ft higher than the river. There is a lone shelter at Nerak campsite which serves as a Rafting point in the summer months. During winters, it serves as a shelter for the Chadar trekkers.
Nerak is notorius for its really cold nights and winds. The temperature can dip as low as -25 or lower. This is going to be the coldest point of your trek.
The return from Nerak: The return path is theoritically a retrace of the route you took the last 3 days but in reality can feel like a totally new one. The dynamics of the Chadar can make the whole place look and feel different. Old Chadar breaks, new ones form where there was none earlier, texture of the Chadar changes and so on.
Sometimes the Chadar breaks right under your feet and floats away like a raft. You have no option but to run on to the safer sheet ahead. You see the same broken raft getting stuck somewhere downstream and other icicles clinging on to it to form a whole new Chadar elsewhere. The Chadar trek is an experience. Your experience and what you see will be totally different from anyone elses.
Day 1: Report to Leh by 2.00 pm (preferably take the earliest morning flight to give more acclimatization time)
Day 2: Leh to Tilat Sumdo(by private bus or jeeps), camp at Tilat Sumdo.
Day 3:Trek from Tilat Sumdo to Shingra Koma, 9.5 kms, 6 hrs.
Day 4:Trek from Shingra Koma to Tibb, 15 kms, 7 - 8 hrs.
Day 5:Trek from Tibb to Nerak, 12 kms, 7 hrs.
Day 6: Return from Nerak to Tibb, 7 hrs.
Day 7:Trek from Tibb to Shingra Koma.
Day 8:Trek from Shingra Koma to Tilat Sumdo and drive back to Leh
Day 9: Buffer Day *
* Trekkers are advised to keep an extra buffer day for the Chadar trek. The buffer day may be required if there is bad weather or if the Chadar breaks and the team has to wait for the ice to form again. This may happen on any of the trek days. If the buffer day is utilised then trekkers have to bear an additional cost of Rs 3150 towards the trek fee. This money will be collected only if the buffer day is required and to be paid to Indiahikes trek leaders on location.
How to plan your flight ticket
While booking flight tickets please include the buffer day. As an example, if your trek group is from Feb 2 - Feb 10, book your arrival ticket for Feb 2 and departure ticket for Feb 11.
Moderate. The walks are long and temperature is always in minus. See link for details
Easy gradient. It is almost a flat walk on the frozen river.
Leh in Ladakh. The only way to get to Leh in winter is by flight.
Highest altitude 10,900 feet (Nerak). The entire trek is below the altitude of Leh. If a trekker can acclimatize to Leh, then he/she needs no further acclimatization.
Trek starts at Chilling (62 kms from Leh, 2½ hrs drive)
The Chadar forms fully from the 3rd week of January onwards. The trek is possible until the first week of March.
Between -5° to -10°C during the day. Can drop to -25°C during the night at some camps.
Entire trek is on snow and ice. Does not require special boots. Good trekking shoes with grips will do.
Physical preparation mandatory. See link for more details.
Things to get
The Chadar trek gets really cold. A common concern is what gears to carry for the trek. In addition to the usual list of things to take, we give you here suggestions and advices of people who have done the Chadar trek on what to carry for the trek.
Fitness required: The Chadar is a trek where you need to be in top physical condition before you start the trek. The cold is intense. A fit body manages the conditions on the Chadar well.
You must be able to jog 4.5 km in 30 minutes before commencement of the Chadar expedition. This makes your lungs strong and gives it ability to process less air for more work. It also helps the body to acclimatise better to the bitter cold of the trek.
Physical Preparation is mandatory. See link for details.
Folklore & Stories
Gaurav Agrawal shares an folklore anectode of Tsomo base, from the Chadar trek 2012
This is one of the very few waterfall which are completely running.
Legend is, long back an astrologer visited Head Lama in Tibet to solve the long running water scarcity. He gave him a box and asked him to carry to Nerak. He also warned him not to open the box before Nerak. Happy with his success, the astrologer started for Nerak.
However, the box started getting heavier as he neared Nerak. When he was hardly a couple of hours from Nerak, he opened the box out of his curiosity.
The moment he opened the box, two big fishes jumped out of the box. The two fishes hit at two separate places a few meters up in the rocks and penetrated the mountain. It is said that they penetrated the rock and made a tunnel till Tsomo Lake, a large lake in Tibet. The fishes reached the lake and water started flowing through the tunnel.
Realizing his mistake, astrologer tried his best to divert the tunnel to Nerak, all in vain. Rather one of the tunnels got closed in the effort.
The falls created are in shape of human nose. Water continues to fall from one and the other one is dry.
I guess it all began when I watched an amazing documentary about this very famous trek called Chadar on the National Geographic Channel. Since then I was longing to do it and was in constant discussion with my friends about the same. After a couple of futile inquires over a few years, finally this year we made it happen. Read more here..
Chadar: An experience that has taught me the best lessons in life, a blog by Ritika Gupta from Chadar trek
- Mar, 2014
When sitting at home we think about work, food, partying & shopping. Which company one works for, what car one drives, what brands one endorses, where one does party are the things we tend to notice the most. Have you ever had a moment where you noticed a new tree on the road, or a sunny patch in the garder?
Anoop Athreyasafrom January 2013 trek batch writes:
It was sometime in November 2011 when I first saw the invite for the Chadar exploratory trek (From Jan 29 to Feb 6, 2012). The moment I saw that I knew I wanted to do this trek. But due to some unforeseen circumstances, I couldn't do it. So the moment the registrations for the 2013's Chadartrek was open, I registered for the very first batch. Some people are excited about going abroad for studies, some are excited about getting married and some are excited about their careers, but I knew this was my destiny. As the date for the trek approached, my excitement became more and more palpable
The airport's Leh, its a sunny early morning and the pilot says "baahar ka taapman shunya se bees degree kam hai". There is an uneasy hysteria among the cheering and clapping flyers. Welcome to the Chadarexperience. The 5 layers of clothing (TOP_ thermal, T shirt, 1 fleece jacket, 1 fleece windproof jacket BOTTOM_ thermal, fleece pants, dry fit track pants) that i put on the moment we reached our hotel were adequate and stayed on me till i actually got back to the airport 10 days later!!
Abhijith Mishrafrom January 2013 trek batch writes:
The Chadar trek is one of the most unique and dazzling winter trek & expedition in Ladakh/Zanskar. Walled in by the Great Himalayan Divide, it has for decades exerted the allure of Shangri-La on visitors to Ladakh. The region’s staggering remoteness and extreme climate has awed many a generation of travelers! The legendary Chadar trek is a tricky, slippery, challenging one through the mind numbingly beautiful terrain. The ultimate test for even the most hardened adventure traveler, it makes sure you’re never the same again! The high altitude of more than 10,000 ft and rough winter conditions are just two endurance cringing factors making this trek a lifetime of adventure. Read more...
Manish Adalakhafrom January 2013 trek batch writes:
My Experiences - An unparalleled experience. I never expected that I'll hold together at such extreme temperatures but the beauty of the mountains just blew us all away. Every turn was exhilarating. Every moment there was excitement of discovering something new. All along the trek, we all knew we are living out memories that will stay with us forever. Read more..
Manasa Balumerfrom January 2013 trek batch writes:
I am going to be ever thankful to you for the chadar trek.Not only were we surrounded by scenic beauty but also we made friendships that am sure are going to last for a lifetime. Rahul, you rock! Surely my next trekis going to be with you.
As far as the trek itself is concerned, being a Mumbaikar, when I first heard of the temperatures on the trek, I was a little apprehensive. But then Bharti's email addressed to the group where she said the cold was 'easily manageable' (ahem) was assuring so I packed my bags and boarded the flight and I'm glad I did!Read more..
Never in the wildest of wild imagination had I ever imagined what a -30 degree Celsius would feel like. The exercise regime prescribed for the trek did not factor the biggest challenge on the trek-cold. Spending time inside a refrigerator everyday to get used to sub-zero temperatures would have been more helpful.
The turquoise blue-peacock green waters of the Zanskar river flowing intermittently through the frozen waters, within in the high gorge walls of the mountains of the Zanskar range was just as one would imagine heaven to be. Putting up with the chill and the bitter winds complaining all night about our presence in the latter camps was just the right of passage that we had pay for to be there in the lovely place. Read more..
Gopalakrishnanfrom February 2013 trek batch writes:
"First of all I thank Indiahikes from my heart, for making such an wonderful, joyfull and peaceful journey. I won't call it as a trek though. I should say they did not organize a team to lead and help, rather they arranged a family to make an wonderful journey memorable. Now I am back to Bangalore, but I still feel the Chadar in my heart, the river sound, calmness of Himalayan valley, Nirak village, cute kids of Nirak, porters love and caring, lovely Julee..Julee.. words, bits and pieces of Chadar.
Dr Srinivasanfrom February 2013 trek batch writes:
Months of preparatory walks in Delhi culminated in the Air India flight to Leh despite inclement weather at the Kushok Bakula Airport. After spending two days under ‘house arrest’ in the Panorama Hotel in order to acclimatize to high altitude amid sub-zero temperature I met my Trek mates and went to ‘Shanti Stupa’ on the third day to pray for good health.
Vikas Thawani from January 2013 trek batch shares his experiences of the trek in his Blog.
This Trek is named Chadar because in winter, Zanskar river freezes due to the negative temperatures and looks like a blanket of ice/snow. There exists only a small window, just a month in the whole year when this trek can be completed because during this timeframe, a relatively stable ice layer is formed on the river to walk on. It was a 7 day trek in extremely harsh conditions where the average temperature in daytime is -5 to -10C and during the night, temperature can go as low as -25C. Terrain-wise, it is a relatively flat walk. Read more...
The sheet of ice that covers the river is called as Chadar (Blanket of ice). The constant sub zero temperatures (daytime -10 to nights -25) poses challenges that test one’s fitness and the very ability of clicking a picture. Photographers often return with an awe-inspiring collection of pictures that tell unbelievable stories. I just returned from this trek and have compiled some suggestions. Read more...
Pratushya Pfrom February 2013 trek batch blogs - An unexpected journey; an unforgettable experience
Blue. Brown. White. If these are the only colours you ever knew for how long would you have lived? I stayed with it for eight days. Every mountain face looking up at the sun is brown, the rest of the mountains covered with snow, and of course as the name suggests the frozen lake is plain white. We could see the sky whenever there was a clearing, a blue like the one you cannot see in cities, unpolluted and natural. Whenever Chadar cracked, there was turquoise, emerald, white and blue gushing its way through it. Read more here..
The two exploratory teams are just back from the Chadar trek. While the first group got back home on 30th January, the second team is reaching their homes as we write this. This page is dedicated to the data collected by the trekkers on the Chadar trek. Their photos, videos, blogs etc. Read more...
Trekkers pictures from Chadar Exploratory Trek
Chadar Trek Videos
Busting some common myths about the Chadar trek
A typical morning on the Chadar Frozen River Trek
How cold does -10°C feel like?
A day in life on the Chadar trek
How the Chadar forms in 2 days
How to stay in summer tents at -20C
What the Business Standard says about the Chadar trek
Arjun Majumdar of Indiahikes writes for the Business Standard on the Chadar trek. Click on the picture below for full story
1. What is Chadar?
The word Chadar literally means blanket. Zanskar is a river which eventually joins the Indus river and flows into Pakistan. During the winter months, a thick blanket of ice forms over the Zanskar river and this blanket over the Zanskar river is called as the Chadar.
2. How cold does it really get on the Chadar trek?
On the Chadar trek, temperature can dip upto -25 or even -30 degree celcius. Though this sounds intimidating, its not something that the human body cannot withstand if adequately prepared. And no, water does not freeze if thrown in the air and nor does water freeze in normal plastic bottles during the day. These are more of fascinating stories than reality.
3. How difficult is the Chadar trek?
Chadar trek is not a very difficult trek in reality. The trek is almost flat in gradient. The trek days are long. So it does require you to be able to walk for more than 10kms on a single day. Your guides are knowledgable and can recognize the terrain well. If there is any danger, they will not take you on that route. The trek requires you to be able to withstand cold, but it is not something out of the world.
4. How to dress for the Chadar trek?
Dressing in layers is the mantra for the Chadar trek. Wear a thermal inner, 3 layers of normal full sleeve t-shirts, a thick sweater and a thick jacket. Add another sweater if you are the one to feel cold.For the legs wear a thermal inner and 2 pairs of tracks. Wear one woolen and one cotton socks for your feet. You will always need a woolen cap, a scarf and gloves for your hands. A normal trekking shoe like the forclaz 500 will protect your feet from cold.
These clothes need not be expensive or branded. A common sense approach to clothing will enable you to face even -30 degrees with ease.
5. What is the daily schedule like on the Chadar trek?
On the Chadar trek, your trek day starts at around 7 am with bed tea. You leave the campsite by 9 am and are scheduled to walk until 3 or 4 pm in the evening. The days are kept that long intentionally as reaching the next camp early and sitting will only make you feel cold. You are warmest when on the move.
Neeta Dixit writes about the pros and cons of the Hamta pass trek.
Hamta pass is a relatively easier trek in the Himalayas with average distance per day usually being only 6-8kms. The altitude gains and drops are not very drastic but gradual making it easy to acclimatize too.